Terrorism...let's attempt to define terrorism: unlawful or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property in an attempt to coerce or intimidate governments or societies to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives..
Terrorism is designed to create power where is non, or consolidate it where is little, terrorism has an aim. We find two types of terrorism, traditional terrorism and international terrorism.
Traditional terrorism - motivation is to gain political freedom for ethnicity minorities in certain countries or to change the political order of the country
International terrorism is more complex and we can divide it in two sections:
1. State Sponsored Terrorism
2. Freelance or Independent Terrorism
1. The State Sponsored Terrorism is defined by:
a. States Supporting Terrorism - states that support terrorist organisations, providing financial aid, ideological support, military or operational assistance
b. States Operating Terrorism - states that initiate, direct and perform terrorist activities through groups outside their own institutions
c. States Perpetrating Terrorism - states intentionally attacking civilians in other countries in order to achieve political aims without declaring war
- they act abroad through their own official members of security forces its intelligence services or direct agents
2. Freelance or Independent Terrorism also called Sleepers:
- they are individuals who once were trained in terrorists camps but sent back to live a civilian life, until they get the initial order to commit a terrorist attack
- they are hard to combat as they live legally in certain countries as residents, they have valid documents, jobs and are not feasible for any local authorities
They not perceive themselves as terrorists, they justify their actions as the only possible way and they see their fight as a quarrel for a higher aim for the benefit of all people and they use military terms to identify themselves " One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter".
Modern terrorism was used mainly by the European for left wing to achieve national political goals and later, the 20'th century, goals became more international. There were terrorist operations up to WW1 (ex. in Germany German Freikorps, in Romania Romanian Iron Guard) and after WW2 ( ex. in Germany Red Army, in Northern Ireland, Spain, USA), but the first terrorist organisation was The Zealot's and became active after the Roman occupation of Palestine, called "sicarii" or "dagger men". The english word "terrorism" was established with The French Revolution, the "Regime de Terreur" in 1793-1794.
The terrorist attacks follow a simple matrix:
1. Spreading fear and scare among the public
2. Withdrawal the feeling of security
3. Infiltration in the state, by taking away its legitimacy
A terrorist attack is the stage where the terrorists introduce themselves, from the time the attack happens till the first report on the news media, the terrorists are controlling the situation. For the media it is a trade off between the need of providing the public with current sensational information, and the issue of not giving terrorists another platform to spread their message.
A terrorist group is depending on the ability to recruit new members and to get a broader circle of supporters for the group, so for this reason they need channels of communication so supporters to get more connected with the terrorist environment. The terrorists primary aim to create fear within the target population with the intention of translating this fear into pressure on government.
The rational fear is a product of the possibility of meeting a violent death as a result of an terror attack, and the irrational anxiety is a product of imagination of each individual and its personal fear of being caught in a terrorist attack. Terrorist organisations mobilize mass media, the internet and various methods of psychological warfare designed to amplify the impact of terrorist attacks.
Knowing all the facts about terrorism we can individually conclude where, who, when, how and why is still happening. World can't expect that the global problems will solve themselves, the most important area in long term is the challenge of overall population growth, in 1999 population was 6 billions and projections show it growing to 11 billions by 2060. Political Globalisation, Economic Globalisation, Environmental Globalisation, Cultural and Social Globalisation, Globalisation of Military Power, all have a big impact on us as individuals as part of a society or a culture.
I can detail and develop the idea on my next post if anyone show an interest.